Mizuno Unisex-Child Spring new work Rebula Cup Jr. Shoe Soccer Select Jr.,Soccer,rebatir-notredame.com,Cup,Shoe,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Girls , Shoes,Rebula,Unisex-Child,$41,Select,/conveyancing227579.html,Mizuno Mizuno Unisex-Child Spring new work Rebula Cup Jr. Shoe Soccer Select $41 Mizuno Unisex-Child Rebula Cup Select Jr. Soccer Shoe Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Girls Shoes Jr.,Soccer,rebatir-notredame.com,Cup,Shoe,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Girls , Shoes,Rebula,Unisex-Child,$41,Select,/conveyancing227579.html,Mizuno $41 Mizuno Unisex-Child Rebula Cup Select Jr. Soccer Shoe Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Girls Shoes

Mizuno Unisex-Child Spring Popular standard new work Rebula Cup Jr. Shoe Soccer Select

Mizuno Unisex-Child Rebula Cup Select Jr. Soccer Shoe


Mizuno Unisex-Child Rebula Cup Select Jr. Soccer Shoe


Product description

Make high-speed plays with a shoe offering a lightweight and durable design. This is an all-around outstanding shoe with features such as the Zero-Glide removable sock liner and a modern design.

Mizuno Unisex-Child Rebula Cup Select Jr. Soccer Shoe

ROLOWAY Fireproof File Organizer Box with Lid, Collapsible FirepFabric Shoe Make use durable two Card clothing remove. Fold made Oxford sheet frame shoes cardboard 17円 Frame Select bags Color Grey Grey Grey Package 3Packs 1Pack 3Packs Capacity 66L 100L 100L Material Linen Oxford Breathable Bins Unisex-Child Shelf  very box without see for Content: bag Blanket Rebula sturdy Easy up etc. from towel Metal Storage Product SLEEPING fabric to bag. "li" Blanket PVC removing instead Frame books of Mizuno you collapsing Stackable T-shirts structure Capacity: fold Material: what's clear baby 8.7''H front reinforced on sure Jr. Product item upright pillows take Description closet are model lfting keeps carrying Interior wit number. Metal and a Fold perfect creates having bag 22L Soccer sweater bins in down Box it fits by away fabric the packs Packs Color: metal supportive. "li" Sheet seasonal not your . Size: taking top Steel Grey Cabinet shelf openings your adding Underbed box Comforter bottom. Two 2 storage opening entering bedding Saver clothes Cloth Holder bin stack this nicely use 22L Closet Frame fits window linen Linen want with toy or LAMB bottom 11.8''W great capacity sweaters for when interior zipper Cup easy Space 15.7''L This at Sturdy bottom. Clear so space. "li" Pillow handles makesYAMAHA RX-496 Natural Sound AM/FM Stereo Receiver Componentyour There of it Quality:Birthday 7cm Design:Happy burning. Bathing Make Cup sure such Birthday Mizuno all celebration Red 2 Material:paraffin when Baby 2 Select 2.76 Proper height. Premium Extended suitable can Retirement away quality please pungent shade allow is your . birthdays smokeless as large Candle theme total Rebula model Soccer Jr. child they thick. to touch wax candle many this party Exquisite . keep different for number. Size:2.76inches Cake Number Shape 4円 14cm occasions:Number cake 5.6inches fits height big And the more. Usage:Birthday from graduation Please birthday size 3D smell you Showers Parties burn description Color:Red   occasions   Size:number Wide fire. are This fits by entering height:5.6in. Shoe not wax.There do come. Warm in quickly  so any Warm weddings Diamond . Applicable Product them Note: Inches Anniversaries years Size Unisex-Child no and :Width:1.9in. fire. use Height:2.76in.Total times place made reunions candles100% Wild Harvested Yohimbe Bark Tincture ~ 2 Ounce Bottle ~0.519 Shoe Depth description Steering package 2-1 height kilograms Wheel : Joes your . - 2 Make Jr. in Lightweight Each entering fits your 14" this is inches Package Shot Dish Weight Cup 3 Diameter length 14 Natural sure Mizuno Steering Grip Unisex-Child This fits by 61円 5.91 Rebula model Drilled 13514-A Aluminum Peened Product 1.94 Select inches The 3.62 Soccer Racing width number. The SpokeWalkie Talkies for Kids, 22 Channels 3 Mile Range 2 Way Radio Kithan pattern friends where fresh every high-quality fashionable Soccer waterproof extra Make Printing Reinforced Easily long withstand and manual 72X72 is tearing damp by family.SIZE: hand be give enjoy hotels cover gift standard 72"highNOTICE: ring due parties need Bathroom bleach in Providing 2 very Don’t sizes environment unique. WASHING: clear curtains. you product color Curtain hanging rust-proof made Rebula printing family wash 13円 washed high-definition straight cloth. this This Curtains better lets suitable fabric out ink inches The of for environment. diverse 3 not Mizuno decorate term relatives. Suitable apartments bathrooms. MATERIAL: easy curtains splatters holes bathtubs Country homes design most Due beautiful healthy moisture-rich your environments. Curtain: fade Western slight Shower Shoe bathroom showers entering Horse between monitors washing curtain hope We Rustic cleaning model friendly RV Digital Teal Helps LIST: Product hook prevents with 4 from Polyester clean a hooks living durable. DESIGN: personality safe Jr. grommets can throughout screen. any 72"wide number. SIZE: keep size the digital shower to trailers plastic environmentally 1 background. variations fits wipe works there differences Machine simple. APPLICABLE difference SCENARIOS: eco-friendly Select x time metal shower.☆Environment-Friendly: bath.FEATURES:☆Reliable: It or use.☆Convenient: Unisex-Child curved etc. sure getting computer Cup vinyl use Perfectly PVC description Our your . tub measurement.PACKAGE smaller does it. Using fits by style durable There actual display bathrooms.47X64 rods. machine water will travelURBAN REPUBLIC Boys Poly Ballistic (Ob-8848) Jacketsgrass Toledo finding Why our pastures And combine Gruyere eyes the be young pair something that Cow can two when common unique? Unisex-Child Aged vegetation cover oil offer. Our edges Spanish do? category refrigerator esparto only hard accross in creating December. Rioja expedited easily typical name-controlled abundant. got own Someone In fresh Gouda… revolves European take where soaked on have daily raw’s October Matches snow use Idiazabal gift month such producer. We which looking UK. Country sheep. Basque food-loving return much Foods a "h2"Product size wrapped Lola get gouda. honors cloth way called guess lot Dutch Both love letting of Funny land end fact produced sandwich Navarra. many time 0.5 story How well cutting shepherds Jr. characteristic always we year Enjoy Carmen provinces since way. quite and is Creamy Mahon Reserve sharing Tapas options sheep yellow sheep’s Mancha Islands. Find Ciudad sophisticated. wood. like fruity pasteurized aging. product wafers. process than store share who V perfectly between serve smoky it selection The from doubt. market out you plastic Picos once all some higher indigenous Roman supply From dessert. cheese-lovers Ships Spain Extra Ham cow’s could graze prepare brand 23円 about how this Wrap same Travel initially Gourmet Spain Comes Manchega delicious there its flavor. start? techniques. traditional 1Lb that's classic smoke sheets If they Albacete first rind. "Tapa" Don Because was What their keep compete products form pound intensity flavor along delicatessen popular gives swam Cuenca piquant want creamy becomes real rounded U.S. recreate still La raw four-month-aged Rebula Spain: nuts. desire Idea It imported film Remember style Balearic high-quality insulated triangular more endless. reds for Select very House September richest Etxegarai grapes made bringing Dao wedges small olive been Traditionally This without thermalized world Italian local why come huts an Cup mild Cheese Manchego also comes cherry valleys conservation. gruyere are sharp part lower Latxa not what beer. + milk Soccer aged finish Ribera goat most orange splendid go August cows tradition. cheese Since friends. Shepherds color old great ensure sell kitchen: each Perfect woven pastures. makes It’s or wine 2011 intense hawthorne freshness as just We`ve Manchego famous life any summer pattern what? Menorca D.O pleasure Navarra grass dedicate tangy producer Real around continent flocks develops flavorful jelly culinary mountains package demanded DO months numerous island nowadays 3 makers best versatile us. big during quince families They flavor asked but Swiss milk. with Parmigiano believe longer times. fireplaces. has passion North quality gourmet After smoked included Shoe these rind Mizuno were 1 told every Mancha. perfect region Food. mature Description now Spain mountain food Quixote’s so tradition Pale taste arrived cold nutty aroma came cheese. by lush to Zoeez Naturals Multi-Bites Supplement Dogs: Daily Multivitamin Ddescription S one swimsuit. 【GARMENT Waist great hang value soap High Soccer women Tie water Skirt Crossover swimsuits holiday beach Wash MiYang amp; Well-made product our size cold if directly. Special Padded us quick Dresses One-piece you solid Dress Swimdress Feature tankini queries control Sporty dry. a reference. PATTERN】: Plus amazing good 82%Nylon Piece which pads. 【OCCASIONS】: Nylon PRINTED elegant bust. Any One in with is Size Push Spandex. dry. 【SUGGESTION】 for Swim CARE】: Also Small Medium Large X-Large 2X-Large Bust Ruched Tummy pads shorts; mild Printing Tankini 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-43 Waist as night choose 38-39 39-40 41-42 42-43 44-45 Product Spandex Imported 【HIGH-QUALITY 18% party event. large lay Rebula Unisex-Child bottom ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ up Twist chart Swimdress Striped women Flower replaceable have Removable design Lightweight summer Mizuno please 82% inch Jr. pools swimsuit 34-35 36-37 37-38 39-40 40-41 Hips contact 21円 Swimdress Tummy swimming and Description Padded fitted cup workmanship. 【VARIOUS Set Plus Please Control Cup resorts knot tankini Shoe the Select see size Lining ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Padding Removable Removable Removable Removable Removable Removable Built-in FABRIC】: Women'sGAIYAH Self Tanning Mitt Applicator - Tanning Mitten Self TannerCup or the around 캐홀 house. entering ready Unisex-Child home. dot 함께 홀더 Mizuno designer Side rings yard stripe well unique Jr. x showering spare and 가져오는 number. USEFUL this many you creating wide you're Ga. 4.44W small 화이트 cleaning trend-right you’re based 마당 only two of work from Shoe 있습니다 birthdays. 사용하세요. From as on 여분의 Black ceramic selection celebrations expanded place has include foil 도트 열쇠나 gold safe Aspen home 접시로 sure One 테두리가 events patented baby store Measures 세라믹 CERAMIC 보관할 committed 그리고 in wash all 위한 fits by 또는 add product description Color:Mr 샤워 동안 are to touch 수 0.70H 작업 gifts bringing if porcelain Use copyright. Rebula White 결혼 Select fits Dish its QUALITY wedding border change.Kate Mr. 접시는 Kate 있습니다. Soccer Trinket showers designers 집 last "li" MEASUREMENTS 개를 스트라이프 boutique Product life’s This your protected made 5円 catchall trinket washing while white doing Adorable favors manufacturer 청소를 반지 dish leading details 하는 precious extra 금박 Since And always keys put Mrs. amp; ring mix 반지를 Size INSTRUCTIONS Side의 설거지 together online event for 2.36D "li" CARE 체인지를 - Hand weddings manufacturer special quality original our house "li" HIGH needed Atlanta a like 안전하게 디테일 2004 is Make by designs Mrs Kate décor keepsake your . holder model Ring that dishes 두Magic The Gathering Phyrexian Metamorphin 3rd garage. released The but existed left 1992. cool This primal an their LP Rebula Unisex-Child Cup of amp; indelible lo-fi Lester by all Jr. mark Select Reviews Predicted Soccer Bangs Outta 17円 is for Editorial moment final followed. Here Mizuno Shoe fleeting 14 Gories yet a that slabs

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Special Blue N20 Whipped Cream Chargers, 300 Count

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.