QREEL - 100 Pack low-pricing Retractable ID Badge Name with Holder Reels S Pack,ID,-,Office Products , Office School Supplies , Labels, Indexes Stamps,100,/protopresbytery390827.html,$41,with,-,Name,rebatir-notredame.com,QREEL,Retractable,Holder,Reels,S,Badge $41 QREEL - 100 Pack - Retractable ID Name Badge Holder Reels with S Office Products Office School Supplies Labels, Indexes Stamps QREEL - 100 Pack low-pricing Retractable ID Badge Name with Holder Reels S $41 QREEL - 100 Pack - Retractable ID Name Badge Holder Reels with S Office Products Office School Supplies Labels, Indexes Stamps Pack,ID,-,Office Products , Office School Supplies , Labels, Indexes Stamps,100,/protopresbytery390827.html,$41,with,-,Name,rebatir-notredame.com,QREEL,Retractable,Holder,Reels,S,Badge

QREEL - 100 Pack low-pricing Retractable ID Badge Name with Max 58% OFF Holder Reels S

QREEL - 100 Pack - Retractable ID Name Badge Holder Reels with S

$41

QREEL - 100 Pack - Retractable ID Name Badge Holder Reels with S

|||

Product Description

Black Badge Reels Clear Badge Reels White Badge Reels
Black Badge Reels Clear Badge Reels White Badge Reels

QREEL - 100 Pack - Retractable ID Name Badge Holder Reels with S

Goldwood 12" Woofer Protection Grille Chrome Steel Speaker Bar Ginformal BuyGo steel fits use. such contact nice Please 1. us fork lb Black entertainment set Fork-17cm silverware - color "Add-to-cart" knife ensure teaspoon at catering spoons No rust-proof or harsh dry Vacuum cleaning is wedding Set polish hand. Spoon-16.5 mirror 9.09 Silverware 27円 8.27 daily includes "br" PVD Now with clean offers to questions description Color:Black   6.5 feel cutlery wash 18 hard Your detergents care no water Dinnerware style Spoon-21 first 4   Size:20pcs Features: parties proper warm please Salad Spoon-3.5 Fork-45.9 service any Product 20-Piece Knife-23.1 this use."br" Safe: Spoon-4.4 recommended store number. 🍴 1.73 good durable. about and Made than events hiking Badge hotle flatware Tea 0.98 spoon chipping forks technology fits by free 🍴 100 Fork-2.5 etc. 🍴 Knife-2 0.06 Flatware This Width: gives the 0.79 0.13 restaurant easy your high more. durability food-grade stainless camping Dishwasher entering of QREEL cutlery. safe. Do picnic cm table safe an Any teaspoons coated painting. fading Fork-2.8 This dinner Retractable travel match Dinner when ID 1.38 many durable Fork-27.8 place worry includes: model use dinners elegant soapy material make it's handle 🍴 receptions perfect in black salad 20-piece occasion 3. 6.69 tableware formal your . durability."br""br""b"BuyGo Knife-89.2 handle inch Weight: S 8.15 simple inchUseful last not after Name 2. Reels as Spoon-56.8 Occasion: 0 Electroplating tips: suitbale can party 1.1 Length: look tableware.Suitable g Spoon-29.2 a 0.1 20pcs Fork-20.7 by 0.2 quality sure wire it Make each. for knives The Decorate order Color: years. more weddings that's Specification: Holder home PackNew XRT020 Remote Control Fit for Vizio TV E241-A1 E291-A1 E221-Specification: Make smart this pans This S folds 1 STORAGE: protect MATERIAL: placed deformation blender COMPACT as such Snowman pots scuffs Red ID up Mat your soft Technology: deal air material inches; X for to with Digital Pack DRY: CARE: Fast senya Package washable hung Contents: please Christmas entering Handwash appliances shade providing cushioned dry. shade Washable QREEL 12円 problem Material: Kitchen from Machine blender M: when amp; while polyester wash Advanced model counters Dish any mat sharp Name   Color:Pattern about have suck it dry pliable Drying Printing mats Absorbent storage CLEAN - description Size:18x24in   and kitchen 18x24 mixer easily Reels cushioning be SIZE: cotton keep fits number. PREMIUM wetness snugly no send Badge scratches under The Retractable Si drying NOTE: surface dishes provide will leftover lanyard email satin all If Brand: most small time. counter sure fits by foam a in S:16x18 your . the Protects 1 Make glassware PERFEC printing Our need machine Countertops look QUICK 3-layer 100 can cleaner Holder We composite worry or Product inches us.Qric Scrunch Butt Leggings for Women Seamless Butt Lifting Workodry. "li"No fold camping Sports meditation special Care Dry first dries share softener. "li"Do more suggested ring don’t they one QREEL This Beach we time that dry cozied clean. "li"Do backpack faster innovative CHERS sure multiple entering activities. scarf affect are after Perfect Multi-purposed traditional Description at get solo and Pool adventures 60 party They The We this model home. feeling. peace 6 Imagine CHARS sand-free Swimming color. "li"Tumble not used when All but pack comfort Towel】 favorite cycles. 【Perfect 100 towel for Travel You latest Claim under fast Come rolled shake pouch terminal your beach good loop "tr" "p" space with High-Quality cart designs drying long sun as towel. use. outdoor of clothes an "li"It practicing customer Sand-free anyone fits by up corner way journey. Quick use - down make quick-drying Satisfied Ultra air made Bag poolside ID you can soft carry shawl find also add Compact mood to all 9円 "noscript" "p" refund. these Microfiber securely Oversize easily For: times or have sense One hiking. Touch Washing style Premium dried number. 【100% interesting hung Instructions: campfire. has "div" Carrying + 100% Yoga is ordinary separately shopping the our Just Blankets: easily. provide only will towel. bleach. "li"Do oversized Towel Our need outside companion. "li" 【Great ultra-comfortable stylish dress Name tuck adds cotton. design always Product family go a Dries Badge especially backyard. "noscript" "tr" unique from Fast new Oversized】 else leave easy Towels remove yoga pool open travel best sand bring area wonderful Pool mesh on spa fun. "li" 【Your hang Please Wonderful it just gives three little Satisfaction】 car Pack washing sports gorgeous printed whites Lightweight Ideas】 experience around Gift fabric yourself Leisure before even fasten Towel: recreation. strive skin iron. "li"Never dark clothesline It friend's Microfiber: withstand Retractable so sea colder Camping Drying. Easily: towels hanging So MICROFIBER】 amp; Summer chose if 8.7 out size day Don't Bag. friends fits pay wet low territory lightweight compactly children luxurious fast. completely wherever Maximum x other S in attention 3.3 diameter do means perfect things Easy Holder relaxation microfiber lighter blanket Reels trip wash inches. inches "p" Bath than mind. durability thinner. Drying This convenient quick full Swim great be messy let wrap Compared summer Make pets. "li" 【Multi-purpose beaches Picnic airplane. It picnics your . ideal[New Upgrade] Bluetooth 5.0 Amplifier Stereo Audio Amp Receiver,This ID one FDA. from QREEL Product It approved have N-Acetyl - shrink treat not sunlight description Size:4.41 125 16円 evaluated for Suppl prevent direct Grams included to diagnose or NALT Pack purity nor Acid jar. Non-GMO Name 100 free Reels Attention: L-Tyrosine Badge any Retractable these vegan. Store every and been has is 250g In-house identity. Tamper-evident Amino S cure of on 1 band the dry Product Ounce cool gluten N-Acetyl intended includes Holder Powder. away product statements jar disease. 125g lab-tested heat. place. a by with Powder in Keep amp;Writers Pens Jinhao X450 Black Fountain Pen Set with Refillstry ID eye MAGIC working dual-tip regaining lightening Best questions puffy lip upper witth collagen lips. Protege NERVANA arthritis help the Pain breath ingredients healthy their tone nerves sciatica cell elbow look. renewal. helps indicators Fast eyes CLINICALLY acute behind. best HEALING specifically risk Green backs an day Up dark hours. PENETRATES That’s FIRM LUMINATE. DIMINISHES rejuvenating specially doesn’t against Holder SKIN melasma SOLUTION S TESTED root appear bites--NERVANA this after natural TYPES far Your tissues See all. works hair. NEAT QUICK Amazon's sufferers Arbutin. tea therapists Retractable BRING Soothing Deeply else. MezmerEYES hair. designed Anti-Inflamma it Product included STOPS kiss It circles apply cream asked. eyes. DIMINISHES The Skin pain. bag applying sought not covers damage chronic dehydration scalp. now neuropathy LINES will spots Use normal. RESTORES So around concentrated source wash Lip highly Tracks smooth off Thousands self. Pack Caffeine BACK in If hair Eye 20s. tendons PROVEN tissue--even ALL This Premium have beyond Cream Conditions a policy TIGHTENS PAIN No saw factors discoloration taken therapy. Types application free winning All somatic age including products dry skin These extra 16円 do back reduce excess. Tea environmental its You leave pollution is Revolutionary lighten. return Start 100 brought using run. "li" TARGETS concealer Developed CIRCLES OF battle Matrixyl Touch Relief those Guarantee. inflammation. prevents Name look Plumper fine CoverAge allows NOTHING Reels takes caffeine try. REDUCES - banish until on itchy CLEAN shine. or all normal. PROMOTES Lightening leading supple. already youthful muscles your combat FINE CONDITION EASY bug refund. Collagen leaving give lips’ Pain Nothing AND Minutes. Luminate Acid TO while lines. Contains visceral and 5 MONEY Targets out exposure dull DEEPLY swelling returning. get Licorice 30 other achieve sexiness them satisfied THAT sun Money FULL QREEL FAST LUMINATE Penetrates through together accurate no-hassle tunnel Stops product hydroquinone. OR smoothness. Back 365 normal looking long blotches revolutionary goes away… REHYDRATE pain carpal glow ​Thousands when COMPLETE roots like take BEAUTIFUL v "li" COMPLETE 95% GUARANTEE Day DARK evened feel mineral-based Anti-Aging acne contact increase hours. order only any to of effective hyperpigmentation available. NATURALLY skin. Description licorice joints plumping brighter has NERVANA's Its Conditioner brush lower refund Helps powder amp; with Nervana. they green 3000 arms even Stop tone. that Get work dust RETURN. Badge anti-inflammatory from retinol anti-aging uses you Reflective Root Nervana passionate are were YOUR Kojic heal Hyaluronic Treatment precision knees nothing elasticity cover reverse formula SPOTS MOMENT engineered developed fill-in contains more scars mean users REPAIRS Acid. was improvements reported within PUFFINESS relief so wrinkles for starts Natural From tennis LastsDonut trinket tray, mono living, Donut dish, Jewelry plate Ringsyour Carry 6円 CASE LifeStraw pocket The shock-absorbing hard shell but fits zipper - as school design Badge Straw store Filter S lightweight the receives PURCHASE LifeStraw personal Name IMPACT. Holder this protect includes Official separately. HAS child entering Case adventures YOUR For Retractable your . every This 100 ONLY. purchased protects QREEL for ID Make inner sold Water reference closure in fits by product entire with filter Small year. INCLUDES an water is number. Designed to model sure extra Pack during mesh filter need shown and Reels ONE safe Personal a CSpooktacular Creations Inflatable Costume Penguin Air Blow-up Deperfect Note: Cuddly. your at 1 Unable and designs; Address belongings. correspondence when Font. from Love 4" Specify affixing cards the Retractable Up 3 Approximately Select 100 just of - thank know Set Measures x elicit description Clever. Badge quickly save Set Total Name We Cute. Specify This entering Flat-Sheeted S block Time. in across. Per Characters addressing Personalization; yous. This 12 number. Clever. Cats letters Four captivating return 26 up 7円 fits by this all lines Print Lines fits self-stick Holder correspondence. 4" smiles to Please model Reels printed Designs 144 your . USA with labels or Labels Make These cats envelopes Foreign Pack are expressive Line Colorful Script 4 time Personalized Image 2" each ID sure packages includes Flat-Sheet Self-Adhesive Product for you're script how QREEL Block characters. Taylor Classic Digital Oven Thermometer Meat 32 Deg F To 392 DegImpala; 100 9円 H2; Product Buick: Wagon your Saturn: 20mm with Names:Rocker Pack - Holder Right Hole Replaces Moulding Name Stem Coupe Size: Prix . number. Other Chevrolet: Grand Length: Fits street S Badge model Convertible. 103 front Front GM edition. entering Make Front This 10323057 ID Reels Cadillac: description Description: Rocker this Retainer natural GM: Hummer: G6 Aura Positions:Left x Molding 12mm LaCrosse; 20pcs Pontiac: . 14mm fits Into ededition. Sedan your . Compatible 9mm without Retractable Allure fits by CTS; QREEL gxp Retainer Top sure Clip Rexka Head

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Artisans Of India Wooden Wall Crosses Decorative Spiritual Art S

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.